(this part and the definition is taken from Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/R%C3%A9sum%C3%A9 ).
Resume is a document used by a person to present their backgrounds and skills. Résumés can be used for a variety of reasons, but most often they are used to secure new employment.
A typical résumé contains a “summary” of relevant job experience and education, as its French origin implies. The résumé is usually one of the first items, along with a cover letter and sometimes an application for employment, which a potential employer sees regarding the job seeker and is typically used to screen applicants, often followed by an interview.
The curriculum vitae (CV) used for employment purposes in the UK (and in other European countries) is more akin to the résumé—a shorter, summary version of one’s education and experience—than to the longer and more detailed CV that is expected in U.S. academic circles.
Generally, the résumé is substantially shorter than a CV in English Canada, the U.S. and Australia.
See our main resume post that explains in more detail why people want a resume and what it should contain.